How Circuit Boards Are Made


Board design and layout

Circuit boards are one of the integral parts of modern electronics. It is an electronic component in which circuit patterns are printed on conductive materials by printing technology. The circuit board manufacturing process is generally divided into several steps such as design, plate making, production, inspection, and assembly. First of all, the design and layout of the circuit board are the keys. Designers need to use Gerber software to draw circuit diagrams according to the requirements of the function, size, and circuit layout of electronic products. Then, convert the circuit diagram into a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) file, and perform circuit layout and routing in the PCB software. The layout should consider many factors such as signal transmission, power distribution, signal ratio, EMI, etc., and the wiring should consider factors such as impedance matching, signal transmission speed, and signal ratio. Then, output the PCB file into a circuit board plate-making file, and print the circuit pattern on the conductive material by chemical etching, mechanical engraving, etc. Then, a layer of metal is plated on the surface of the circuit board by spraying tin, chemical gold plating, silver plating, etc. to enhance electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. Finally, inspect the board, including visual inspection, electrical testing, and more. If the board works, it's ready for assembly. In short, the manufacture of circuit boards requires the coordination of multiple steps, among which design and layout are the keys, which determine the performance and function of the circuit board.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Manufacturing Process
The circuit board is one of the core components of modern electronic products, and its manufacturing process is very precise and complex. The following is a brief introduction to the production process of printed circuit boards. Step 1: Design the circuit diagram. Design the circuit diagram on the computer, and determine the size and layout of the circuit board. The second step: make the original board of circuit board. Convert the designed circuit diagram into a negative, and then make the original circuit board through the process of exposure and corrosion. The third step: coating photosensitive adhesive. Apply a layer of photosensitive adhesive to the original circuit board with a coating machine, and then let it dry. Step Four: Exposure. The negative is placed on a circuit board coated with photosensitive adhesive and then placed in an exposure machine for exposure. Step 5: Remove the glue. Put the exposed circuit board into the developer solution, so that the unexposed photosensitive adhesive is dissolved to form the pattern of the circuit board. Step 6: Corrosion. Put the deglued circuit board into the corrosive solution to corrode the copper foil to form a circuit. Step Seven: Drilling. Drill holes on the circuit board to make room for board-mounted components. The eighth step: is a surface treatment, putting the circuit board into the spraying machine for spraying, so that the surface of the circuit board is coated with a layer of metal to protect the circuit. Step Nine: Soldering. Solder components on the circuit board to make the circuit board form a complete electronic product. Through the above steps, the printed circuit board is completed. This process requires a high degree of technology and sophisticated equipment, so circuit board manufacturing is a high-tech industry.

PCB mounting and soldering

Circuit boards (PCBs) are an essential part of modern electronic equipment. It is formed by laying a conductive material on an insulating substrate and forms a circuit connection through etching, gold plating, and other processes. Let's take a look at the manufacturing process of the circuit board. The first is circuit design. According to circuit function and layout requirements, use circuit design software to draw circuit diagrams and PCB drawings. Then export it as a Gerber file. Next is to make the printed circuit board. The copper layer is chemically removed from the substrate, leaving the desired wire shape. Then do gold plating on the copper layer to improve the conductivity and corrosion resistance of the wire. Finally, install the components on the PCB by drilling holes, rivets, etc. And finally the soldering. Depending on the type of components, soldering is performed manually or automatically. Manual soldering requires the use of an electric soldering iron to heat and melt the solder and solder it to the PCB and components. Automatic soldering uses robots or welding equipment to adhere solder to PCBs and components. The above is the manufacturing process of the circuit board. In the continuous technological development, the manufacturing process of circuit boards is also constantly improved to meet the needs of different fields.

Circuit board testing and quality control

Circuit board manufacturing Circuit board is an indispensable part of electronic products, and its manufacturing process mainly includes the following steps: 1. Design circuit schematic diagram and layout diagram. 2. Make the circuit board pattern, and print the circuit pattern on the copper foil board. 3. The unnecessary copper foil is etched away by chemical etching to form a circuit board. 4. Spray solder resist on the circuit board to protect the circuit board. 5. Drill and cut the circuit board to form the final circuit board. Circuit board testing and quality control During the manufacturing process of circuit boards, they need to undergo multiple tests to ensure their quality and reliability. Common test methods include 1. Circuit continuity test: use test equipment to detect the connection between various components on the circuit board. 2. Capacitance test: Test whether the capacitors on the circuit board meet the specifications and work normally. 3. Inductance test: Test whether the inductor on the circuit board meets the specification and works normally. 4. Transformer test: Test whether the transformer on the circuit board meets the specification and works normally. 5. Insulation test: Test whether the insulation on the circuit board is up to standard. During the circuit board manufacturing process, quality control is also required to ensure the quality and stability of the circuit board. Common quality control methods include 1. Strict raw material procurement and inspection to ensure that the quality and specifications of circuit board materials meet the standards. 2. During the manufacturing process, multiple tests and inspections are carried out to find and solve problems in time. 3. Adopt advanced technology and production equipment to ensure the manufacturing quality of circuit boards. 4. During the manufacturing process, the circuit boards are traced and recorded for later quality tracking and quality improvement.

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